Ready for energy and energy is essential for modern society. Over the past century,
Stainless steel has played an important role in the extraction and generation of both fuel and electricity, increasingly needed to produce green energy.
Today we extract oil and gas from more difficult sources (1), which often means that the liquid is “hot and sour” (containing hydrogen sulphide) and can contain chlorine. Often, stainless steel is required to handle corrosive environments, alloys ranging from 316L (S31603) to double-layered and super-duplex, and sometimes nickel alloys. Offshore platforms (2) use stainless steel, as they can withstand sea water. For natural liquid gas, usually stored at -162 ° C, 304L (UNS S30403) stainless steel is commonly used, for piping or for storage tanks. Even at lower temperatures, the 304L is still very flexible. (3)
In the hydroelectric generation (4), the turbine blades are usually made of hard stainless steel such as 410NiMo (S41500) or 16Cr-5 Ni-1.5Mo alloy (EN 1.4418, without UNS number). Dams are usually made of 304L or 316L stainless steel while the guide rollers are made from hardened alloys such as 17-4PH (S17400).
Coal-fired power plants utilize stainless steel for a variety of applications, both in high-temperature and low-temperature corrosion. In the past 35 years, stainless steel has been used in gas purification systems, along with nickel alloys, to reduce sulfur dioxide gas emissions.
It has recently been used to reduce mercury levels. 10,5% Cr Ferritic stainless steel (for example, UNS S40977 or EN 1,4003) is used to transport millions of tons of coal,
car. Both these and 304 (S30400) are used for coal chutes where abrasion is a problem.
Natural gas-fired power plants use a lot of turbines, jet engines use them in this way. While nickel alloys are used in turbine bodies, many other components, such as the rehabilitation, are made of alloys 301 (S30100) and 321 (S32100). The technology of capturing and storing carbon from fossil fuel combustion plants is still under development, although it is known that some important designs use stainless steel. For example, in the cleaning ammonia, which removes CO2, a series of points may be needed: 316L, 410NiMo, 347 (S34700), 2205 dual pair (S32205), 904L (N08904) and 6% Mo , S31254 or N08367).
Although the field of nuclear energy has many common points with fossil fuel plants, there are some special applications involving fuel spent. To regulate the emission of neutrons from spent fuel during transport, a version of 304 with at least 0.5% Bo is used (S30462). A special 304L version, known as NAG (nitric acid), is used in the recycling of fuel.
Many devices are currently being developed to harness the power of waves and tides (5). Some prototype devices contain stainless steel which has a long track record of seawater applications in the field of petroleum.
Transferring knowledge to the new energy sector will become increasingly important. Double and double super-alloy alloys with their combination of strength and corrosion resistance will likely play an important role in this demanding environment. Stainless steel is a natural material for solar energy (6). Applications include solar water heaters, thin film solar panels (PV panels), support plates and connectors for crystal PV panels, and large area mirrors for surface energy capture systems. God.
The biofuel sector (7) benefits from the anti-corrosive properties of heat-resistant stainless steel. In anaerobic digestion, type 304 is used for large crucible tanks and pipeline connection. The same alloy is widely used in the production of ethanol from corn or sugarcane. Type 316L is used in more corrosive conditions. Stainless steel is used in thermal processes, the field because of its high strength and resistance to corrosion at high temperatures.Other technologies Developed stainless steel used include cell fuels, waste-to-energy plants, geotherma
l plants, (8) process synthesis and energy storage. It is clear that the future of society depends on innovative and renewable energy sources, and it is equally apparent that stainless steel will be an integral part of their production.